Thursday, August 27, 2020

Managing Sustainable Growth Rate

Question: Talk about the Managing Sustainable Growth Rate. Answer: Presentation: An open recorded organization is a business element whose proprietorship is separated among open who purchase its offers on the stock trade stage (Boyett 2013). Organizations Act 2013 u/s 2(71) characterizes an open organization as one which is certifiably not a privately owned business and has a base settled up share capital of Rupees five lakhs ( 2017). Goodbye Motors is an Indian open restricted organization which has a worldwide nearness lead by capable CEO and CFO. This task is an investigation of examination among CEO and CFO in an open restricted keeping Tata Motors in the light and the outside and inside elements these two officials need to manage. The following area is an investigation of key financing technique during 2001-2002 and 2004 and its effect on amplifying the abundance of the investors. (CEO) and Chief Financial Officer (CFO): A CEO is the most elevated official in an open restricted organization whose fundamental occupation job is to take significant choices and dealing with the working of the whole organization. He likewise conveys between the governing body where he may have a position and the activity wings of the organization. A CFO is a corporate official essentially enabled to take money related choices, arranging and monetary detailing. He additionally takes care of dangers and presents the monetary examination before the CEO and the governing body. The CFO participates in spending the executives, money saving advantage investigation, anticipating necessities and sourcing of assets. The CEO and CFO are significant situations in an open constrained organization having their own regions of tasks. The principle contrast between the two is that the CEO is the most elevated activities official in the organization while the CFO is leader of the money division. The CEO reports to the top managerial staff or more while the CFO reports to the CEO, governing body or to the leader of the organization. Be that as it may, them two have places of key significance and might be in the board. A CEO being the top official in the organization needs to take choices in all issue like human asset, money related issues like hazard and subsidizing, board organization and goes about as a communicators to the governing body. The CFO, being the top money related official of the organization prompts the CEO and the board about the monetary parts of every one of these zones. The CEO and the CFO are top officials in an open restricted organization like Tata Motors and are influenced by different interior and outer natural factors and take urgent choices about them. The current CEO overall is Guenter Butschek and the situation of CFO is held by Chandrasekaran Ramakrishnan. Inside business condition factors: The vital quality of the representatives is the greatest interior business factor of an organization. Goodbye Motors should select qualified up-and-comers as its representatives should prepare them consistently to improve their insight. The administration ought to assess the workers every once in a while and reward them with advancements and grants to perceive their endeavors. It should likewise attempt to spur and give further preparing to feeble representatives to bring improve their exhibition. Goodbye Motors should rehearse a solid and moral authoritative culture to advance a positive activity condition for all (Goetsch and Davis 2014). Goodbye Motors today takes into account the world market and has demonstrated its serious quality by gaining Jaguar Land Rover from Ford Motor Company. It has contenders like Toyota, Mahindra, Ford and Ashok Leyland (Kumar and Bhatia 2015). This requires persistent advancement in all angles like vehicle structuring, estimating and serious wanting to remain in front of its opponents both inside India, its nation of origin and abroad (Porter, Cunningham and Sanz 2013). Advancement is driven by innovation and is a constant procedure. The RD wing of Tata Motors arranged in India and UK are attempting to present vehicles like Zest and Bolt which permit clients to pick between driving mode relying upon their prerequisites ( 2017). Outside elements influencing Tata Motors Outside elements or full scale monetary elements are those elements which are past a companys control and is summarized as Political, Economical, Social and mechanical condensed as PEST. Goodbye Motors is an Indian global vehicle producing organization which has nearness in a few nations and has gigantic market quality. The organization ought to know about the political frameworks common in different nations in which it has its essence. Goodbye Motors is a worldwide vehicle maker having nearness in sections merchandise bearer, family vehicles and utility and crisis vehicles. Its clients profile comprises of state governments, the service of protection, producers, fire and security administrations and house hold. This makes the organization open to different sorts of tax assessment types and piece. Goodbye Motors ought to know about the levies and obligations of each market and furthermore universal laws. The organization ought to know about laws identifying with land, work and every single other part of its business (Yadav 2013). The enormous market of Tata Motors and the size of the organization present a gigantic test for the CFO and CEO. They ought to know about all the political elements, national just as worldwide and make approaches as indicated by them. The CFO should outline plans of action which the organization ought to follow to exploit political elements around the globe. Goodbye engines have nearness in nations with shifting financial conditions. It needs to think about the buy intensity of the clients of a specific nation to settle on the items, estimating, advancements and every single other angle (Stobart 2016). The CFO should contemplate the different models identified with evaluating and talk about the issue with different divisions like RD and advertising to pick the best model. The CEO also has a noteworthy job to act as indicated by the CFO and best show up at the choice that will control the whole association. Expansion is influencing the greater part of the huge nations prompting fall in money worth and increment costs (Johnson 2014). The organization is additionally influenced by changing cash trade rates and other worldwide laws identifying with account. The intense financial condition represents an extreme test before the two top officials as they need to pick the best contributing and subsidizing alternatives. The per capita salary of a nation is straightforwardly identified with framework, innovation, worker efficiency, ways of life and buy intensity of the individuals. For instance, a costly vehicle like Land Rover will discover a greater number of clients in the UK than in a poor nation. The choice is an essential thing influencing the Tata as well as the whole market. A privilege monetary methodology can make an achievement though a broken choice can cause a colossal misfortune. Vehicles are a need as well as an image of status, have strict ramifications and furthermore an item financed by advances at present. Individuals purchase vehicles during happy events and think of it as favorable. The banks additionally give credits at loosened up loan fees during this time (Fuller 2016). Goodbye Motors should time the creation according to the period and value them as indicated by the different financing alternatives accessible. The CFO and the CEO can likewise consider connecting with the money related administrations verticals like Tata Finance and Tata AIA Life protection during this chance to draw in purchasers. The whole vehicle industry is reliant on the advancement of science, innovation and development for its reality. It can likewise be called attention to that all the nations where Tata Motor works don't have equivalent degree of mechanical headway and pioneering advantage. This factor assumes a significant job in item planning and valuing. It can likewise procure auxiliary units in different nations to gain admittance to nearby market and deal with it. Besides, assuming control over neighborhood auxiliary unit guarantees simple fix and upkeep administrations to the individuals, along these lines expanding consumer loyalty and boosting deals. The CEO and the CFO ought to assign high assets towards innovative advancement since that is exceptionally pivotal to the very presence of the firm. New items at moderate costs guarantee consumer loyalty giving an upper hand to Tata. The Key Financing Strategic Decision: Financing assumes a key huge job in choosing the objective and execution of a firm. It discovers significance in each technique and plan and manages the best use of the constrained assets. A legitimate fund choice relies upon the coordination and collaboration of all the authoritative levels and divisions. It discovers application in different zones like HR, bookkeeping and account capacities. Free income is the sign of the budgetary sufficiency of an organization and its capacity to use its monetary assets to produce future benefits. An expansion in income expands working capital which is significant for the tasks of the whole organization. A consistent progression of money permits a firm to put resources into examination and innovation, utilize quality human asset and financing (Bollerslev, Xu and Zhou 2015). The organization has consistently picked up aptitude in assigning its assets in key business zones under the authority of its CFOs and CEOs An appropriate money related methodology incorporates picking the best financing choices so the firm can guarantee consistent creation. This would expand showcase infiltration, consumer loyalty and upper hand winning financial incentive to the firm. Goodbye Motors brought about substantial misfortunes in 2000 because of low interest. In any case, it builds benefit in2001 by presentation of light, medium and substantial business vehicles. This bounce would not have been conceivable with the architects and the consistent financing. Along these lines, it very well may be pointed that an accomplished CFO guarantees constant progression of assets to prop activity up on and increment the abundance of the organization through benefits. Goodbye Motors has nearness everywhere throughout the wo

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Evaluation Plan

The historical backdrop of value the executives in the private division shows a fascinating advancement along two measurements. To begin with, the predominant direction has been widened from the item to the all out arrangement of creation and conveyance, and from item related rules to outer rules (for instance, the natural effect of items and creation forms). Second, an advancement of perspectives and practices has occurred concerning the association of different kinds of actors.These improvements point to an expanding multifaceted nature of the quality administration work. Hence, the principal point of this paper is to inspect the ramifications of this advancement for the professionalization of this capacity. (Dick 2001) The private and the open segment have, as for quality administration and assessment, followed their own lines of advancement. Indeed, even the key conceptsquality the board and evaluationhave an alternate significance, particularly as for the connection among determ ination and intervention.However, their essential inquiry is the equivalent: how might we survey acknowledged execution and utilize the outcomes to improve future execution? Additionally, the limits between the private and the open area are obscuring to an ever increasing extent (Godfroij and Nelissen, 1993) and the two segments attempt to take in exercises from the other. In this manner, the second point of this paper is to investigate the pertinence of the previously mentioned inquiries for assessment in the open sector.The significance of private division assessment approaches for open segment associations ought to be identified with similitudes and contrasts between the two areas as for their objectives and achievement standards, their customer frameworks, items and administrations, impact of partners, and prerequisites concerning open responsibility. For instance, contrasted with private ventures, the items and administrations of open associations are regularly less concrete an d explicit, and forms need to meet rules other than specialized efficiency.For open associations, the arrangement of important partners is increasingly separated, customer frameworks are frequently progressively diffuse and unknown, and criticism forms from customer gatherings can be progressively roundabout and confounded. As a result of these distinctions, open associations must be assessed by other and frequently more mind boggling guidelines than do private associations, for example, equivalent openness, value, and majority rules system. This recommends open division execution needs to meet increasingly diffuse and differing rules, and can be made a decision about less easily.(Airasian 2006) On the other hand, the necessary execution of open associations can be managed expressly. Methods are frequently characterized all the more obviously, with a view to responsibility and just control. Also, on the grounds that administrations today have gigantic budgetary issues, money related models are regularly quite certain. In this manner, customers, items, and procedures of open associations are frequently plainly characterized, subjectively just as quantitatively.Furthermore, private ventures likewise need to consider something other than monetary and specialized necessities and regularly utilize quality administration frameworks, which focus on inward social factors just as cultural cases and guidelines. Therefore, the difference among open and private associations is just restricted. In the field of assessment, the test is fundamentally the equivalent, albeit open division assessment can be more complicated.For private undertaking, the market should be the best and proficient component for the choice among great and poor entertainers. The value instrument joins quality and proficiency standards and mirrors the additional estimation of the items or administrations according to the purchasers. Therefore, at an accumulated level seeing benefit figures is a reasonab le and straightforward method of assessment. This technique has, notwithstanding, minimal informative value.In request to observe reasons for underperformance, quality-related elements and proficiency related variables ought to be evaluated independently. While proficiency assessment takes a gander at the expense creating exercises, quality evaluationthe focal point of this paperstarts with the item itself. The development of value the board in the benefit division began numerous decades back as quality control at the degree of the got done with productdefining quality norms at the item level and contrasting the item attributes and these standards.It took some time before the thought made strides that the presentation (benefits) could be raised altogether by moving thoughtfulness regarding the means in the creation procedure where item inadequacies (and expenses) are produced. This brought into vision the particular procedure stages just as the representatives adding to the procedur e. Quality administration started to focus on the job of the entertainers engaged with creation and appropriation forms, and to the arrangement of essential and supporting procedures all in all. It is currently generally acknowledged that quality administration ought to have an expansive extension: absolute quality administration. References Airasian, P., Gay, L. R., Mills, G.. (2006). Instructive Research: Competencies for Analysis and Applications (eighth ed.). Dick, W. and Carey, L. (2001). The orderly plan of guidance (fifth ed.). Part 12. Longman Publishing Group. ISBN: 0321037804. Godfroij, A.J.A. what's more, Nelissen, N.J.M. (Eds.) (1993). Verschuivingen in de besturing van de samenleving, Bussum, Dick Coutinho.

Friday, August 21, 2020

Free Essay Samples

Free Essay SamplesThere are a lot of companies out there that offer free essay samples. Free essay samples that actually have something to do with things like International repatriation of artifacts and even international espionage. Are these samples authentic?The websites that post these essay samples claim to be free, but the fact is that they are not. I have no idea why they would want you to purchase these essays and get them for free, but they have. In most cases these sites are using fake certificates or fake logos for their websites. This is part of a business model that is not going away.These sites offer hundreds, if not thousands of essays and there is no reason for you to pay for essays that you can access for free. To keep you from getting scammed, you should do your research and read everything about the essay that you are considering. Also, take the time to actually look at the essays before you sign up to get them.Unfortunately, in the past, I have seen people buy pape rs or get essays that had nothing to do with their assignment, so it was really easy for them to scam someone who just had an idea. You should be cautious if you are going to get essay samples for free on the internet.My biggest tip is to pay attention to the background of the site offering the essay samples. If the background looks like it is faking something or just copying some template, I would be careful. I have found that many times, this is the case.Another place to look for essay samples is on the topic itself. It is possible to find multiple sites that have a variety of essays on a wide range of topics. This means that you have a lot of different choices for essays.In some cases, the essays could be written by professors from a local college or university, meaning they may not be who they say they are. There is also a possibility that these essays may have been plagiarized. You should look at the original author's website and see if you can find a link to where the essay ca n be found.Some people try to sell their essay samples or offer them to others. These are the people that should be avoided because they are just scams. The best course of action is to avoid these companies altogether.

Monday, May 25, 2020

The Impact Of Media On Indigenous Collective Action

One of the most famous images within Canadian history is that of a tense moment between two men facing each other. The image shows a masked armed indigenous man leaning over the smaller soldier before a moment of apparent confrontation. On one level, the image itself is colonial portraying the soldier as keeping the peace against the unknowable â€Å"other.† Thereby in many parts this image misrepresents the complex reality of the situation and the history surrounding the Oka confrontation. But this image represents more then merely the Oka crisis, but rather the often one sided portrayal of Indigenous people within the media. The media has played an important role in shaping perception on Indigenous collective action. But like the photo†¦show more content†¦There are two national media controversies in the summer of 1990. The first involved the controversy surrounding the stopping of the Meech Lake Accord by Elijah Harper who an act of protest initiated a filibuster before the accord’s deadline. The second crisis beginning in July 11, 1990 involving a 78-day armed standoff between the Mohawk nation of Kanesatake, the Quebec provincial police, and the Canadian armed forces near the town of Oka, Quebec which became known as the Oka Crisis. The events began in June 30, 1990 when the municipality of Oka was granted a court injunction to dismantle a peaceful barricade erected by the people of Kanesatake in an effort to defend their sacred lands from further encroachment by non-Native developers. The event and the standoff brought wide spread reactions from across Canada and the world. Despite many facts and details being well known there was a level of ambiguity around the events. For example, few reporters at the time conducted interviews with residents behind the blockade. Therefore the media with its already heightened perception of different indigenous protests along with sensationalism around breakdown of the Meech Lake Accord were on th eir own to shape the way in which the events were perceived and unfolded. The newspapers are the key primary source for information about the Oka Crisis. But by no means does this make these sources transparent, rather newspapers are often bias towards the the main social,Show MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Australian Colonization On Australian Society1709 Words   |  7 Pagescommunities, have been subject to the impact of racism and discrimination on self-identity. Nonetheless, many urban-based Aboriginal people proudly identify with their Aboriginality, asserting their identity. In this case study, I will examine the identity of Aboriginal Australian’s, comparing this construction from the time period of colonisation in Australia to the current time period in Australia. Perhaps the most salient features of this construction are the impact of Australian colonisation, alongRead MoreRacism Is The Burden Of The Indigenous People Of Australia767 Words   |  4 Pagesbeen the burden of the Indigenous people of Australia, since the countries discovered by the British. Indigenous Australians have been subject to policies and laws sort to convert them to integrate into the newly pronounced white country (Finlayson, J Martin, D 2012). Cummings, Fuller and Howard have researched how institutionalized racism has impacted indigenous Australians at a national level. Many inquiries have found status as a cultural and linguistic minority indigenous Australians are discriminatedRead MoreFamily Violence : A Serious Social Problem Essay1575 Words   |  7 Pagesproblem because it has serious impacts on the lives of society members. 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As Staggenborg (2) explains, â€Å"m ovements have organized to protect the environment, oppose wars, and advocate the rights of more and more groups, including workers, women, gay men and lesbians, students, disabled people, senior citizens, and many racial and ethnic groups.† Many social movements haveRead MoreThe Theory Of Corporate Social Responsibility7407 Words   |  30 Pagesemployees, environment and local communities). The abovementioned stakeholder theory became central to the theory of corporate social responsibility in many areas, but above all, in the area of environmental protection, where business operations’ impact had the most visible and a relatively easily assessable damage. The environmental direction of CSR will not be discussed in much details here, but will be used throughout this sub-chapter to illustrate the origins of CSR and the underlying concerns

Friday, May 15, 2020

In modern times, a couple usually does not plan to get...

In modern times, a couple usually does not plan to get married less than a week after meeting. Yet in the small Italian town of Messina in William Shakespeare’s Much Ado About Nothing, the young Claudio and Hero plan to get married as soon as possible. That is, until Claudio is fed false information that Hero is not a virgin and slanders her at the altar. During the Elizabethan era when this play was written, most female roles and women in general were treated without respect as Hero was and were only prized on their physical characteristics. Much Ado About Nothing was an important play in the Elizabethan era because it dealt with social class boundaries and the roles of women. Although the Elizabethan Era influenced theater greatly,†¦show more content†¦Elizabethan women were being taught that they were practically property of men. They could be forced into arranged marriages in order to create bonds between families and were taught to be dependent on their male relatives (Alchin). Social class and one’s status in society could also coincide with how they were treated on an everyday basis (Alchin). With these many events that would change the world forever came changes in the theater that would change it forever, too. James Burbage, a prominent Elizabethan actor, built the first Elizabethan playhouse and called it the Theatre (Yancey 25). The Theatre, built in 1576, would go on to set a precedent in the design of all playhouses of the era (Senn). The building was probably round or octagonal and had no ceiling so as to let in natural light since no efficient artificial lighting had been invented at this point in time (Yancey 25). Because of the need for natural light during plays, most performances took place during the afternoon (Yancey 29). On the inside of the Theatre, the stage extended to be a raised rectangle that took up about half of the ground floor (Yancey 30). 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Marketing Plan For Apple Inc - 1619 Words

Executive Summary This marketing plan focuses on the iPhone 7, produced by Apple, Inc, #3. Apple, Inc was founded in 1976 by innovators Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniack, and Ronald Wayne. It was originally named Apple Computer, Inc as the original intent was to make personal computers. The current name, Apple Inc was incorporated in 2007 as the company moved more toward personal electronics. The current CEO is Tim Cook. Mr. Cook took over Apple, Inc. after Steve Jobs passed away. According to Apple’s website, their core values focus on Education, Accessibility, Environment, Privacy, Inclusion and Diversity, and Supplier Responsibility. The value of Accessibility focuses on technology and the importance of everyone being able to use it for how†¦show more content†¦Opportunities and Threats Apple has competitive advantage in several areas. These include customer excellence, locational excellence, product excellence, and operational excellence. Apple has a unique, high quality product with excellent customer service. They have an extensive online and physical presence and an extremely efficient production. Competition and consumers have the largest effect on the immediate marketing environment for Apple. Per Fortune Tech, during the last quarter of 2016, their market share for activations dropped from 40% to 34%. While Apple was still #1, they experienced a significant drop. In order to recoup the market share, Apple needs to address the competition and also learn why their customers are purchasing or activating fewer of their phones. Action to take 1. Improve market share by increasing innovation. While Apple excels at product excellence, their competitors are catching up. 2. Improve pricing. While the high price increases profits and maintains a high profit margin, if the price point is out of reach for consumers, the product will not sell. 3. Improve operational excellence. While the cost to produce is low, it may be possible to reduce the cost even further which could reduce the effect of the loss of profit margin if pricing structure is updated. 4. Respond to consumers. Apple can no longer be content with their domination of the market. While their products are very high quality, the competitor products are as well andShow MoreRelatedApple Inc. Marketing Plan1502 Words   |  7 Pages Apple Inc. Marketing Plan Executive Summary Apple Inc., which was formally known as Apple Computer Inc., is a multinational corporation that designs, develops and sells a wide variety of consumer electronics, personal computers, and computer software. It is located in United States of America California and has its headquarters in Cupertino, California. Among its adequately known hardware, products in the market industry are; iPhone Smartphone, iPad tablet computer, and iPod music player among manyRead MoreMarketing Plan of Apple Inc2585 Words   |  10 PagesMarketing Plan Executive Summary This paper comprehensively describes the marketing plan of a charismatic organization Apple Inc. The main focus of the paper is to describe the most important marketing strategies which Apple has espoused from the date of its emergence and different challenges which it has faced from time to time. The paper begins with an introduction to the organization. Apple Inc. is an American MNC; engaged in the business of developing and marketing of IT products. Apple hasRead MoreMarketing Plan for Apple Inc996 Words   |  4 PagesMarketing Plan for Apple Inc Introduction Apple Inc. designs, manufactures, and sells personal computers, computer accessories and computer related software. The company also offers peripherals, networking solutions and other related services. Additionally, Apple computers designs, builds, and markets a wide array of portable digital music players, telecommunication devices alongside related accessories and services (Cameron Quinn 2011, p 288). Apple Inc owes its recent successRead MoreApple Inc Marketing Plan9306 Words   |  38 PagesApple is involved in the design, development and marketing of personal computers (PC) and related software, peripherals, network solutions, portable digital music players, and associated accessories. The company’s portfolio of offerings comprises Mac computing systems, iPods, iPhones, and servers .The company’s software applications include Mac OS,iLife , iWork, and internet applications like Safari and QuickTime, among others. The company mainly operates in the US. It i s head quartered in CupertinoRead MoreMarketing Plan For Apple Inc.2507 Words   |  11 PagesStudents’ average monthly expenditure on their essentials is 65% of their monthly income (Mintel, 2014). In these few years, there has been a rise of national companies giving student discounts and offers for their products or services. For example, Apple Inc. offers student discounts for their gadgets. Student Beans Ltd. is a website that features discount codes and special offers from United Kingdom’s top companies. In addition, it is only available for students. In 2005, James and Mike Eder in BirminghamRead MoreMarketing Plan For Apple Inc. Essay2126 Words   |  9 PagesIntroduction Founded in 1976, Apple Inc. has been largely successful and has experienced incredible expansion in its history. Starting with the production of the PC in the 70s, Apple became the most valuable company in the world in 2012. 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The 4 Ps of marketing and the marketing mix are sometimes used as synonyms for one another because they are closeRead MoreContingency Plan1552 Words   |  7 PagesControls, and Contingency Plan Tonya Starks STR/581 December 8, 2014 Instructor: Braford James Abstract Apple Inc. is a global innovator of the MacBook, tablets, iPhones, iPods, and other innovative products. Apple is the leader in the electronic market sector for innovative product growth and development. The implementation plan will explain the strategic controls and contingency plan for the organization along with an implementation process. This will allow Apple to assess risks and financialRead MoreApple Inc. and Product (Red) Marketing Partnership Report Essay1181 Words   |  5 PagesMarketing Report - The Marketing Mix Introduction Apple Inc. is an American global organisation that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software and personal computers. Examples of Apple Inc.s products include the iMac, iPod, the OS X operating system, and the iTunes media browser. (RED) is an AIDS charity whos aim is to raise awareness and funding to help eliminate AIDS in Africa. To help achieve their aim Product (RED) was introduced, which is a brand licensed to partner companiesRe ad MoreApple Inc. Implementation Plan1615 Words   |  6 PagesApple Inc. is a leading worldwide retailer of computers, tablets, cell telephones, and other entertainment items. Apple needs new development techniques, product development and a leader in the mobile market. The implementation plan below will show the group of action best suited for the corporation along with the implementation process, assessed risks and financial projections used as the basis for moving the business before. Implementation Plan Apple Inc. is in a transition period, after

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Clinical Manifestation of HIV Infection free essay sample

There are lots of diseases that are transmittable and dangerous to human lives but until today the HIV still leading the most dangerous human life taker. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) destroys the immune system’s helper T cells, the loss of which causes AIDS. The person infected called as HIV positive that shows by test for antibodies to HIV in the bloodstream to be infected with HIV. But how you will know a person if she/he is infected. What are the manifestations you can observe? How can this be applied scientifically based knowledge to nursing practice? What knowledge do you get in reading all these articles?  Ã‚   In the next paragraph the answers to the question are discuss step-by-step. Clinical Manifestation The incubation period of a few weeks after exposure to HIV, most infected individuals present with an acute flue-like illness. The clinical symptoms of HIV infection were first descried in 1985 as an illness resembling infectious mononucleosis. We will write a custom essay sample on Clinical Manifestation of HIV Infection or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The most common symptoms are fever, maculopopular rash, oral ulcers, lymphaenopathy, arthralgia, pharyngitis, malaise, weight loss, aseptic meningitis and myalgia. In one study, fever (80%) and malaise (68%) had the highest sensitivity for clinical diagnosis of HIV infection, whereas loss of weight (86%) and oral ulcers (85%) had the highest specificity. In the study, the symptoms of fever and rash followed by oral ulcers and pharyngitis had the highest positive pr5edictivevalue for diagnosis of HIV infection. In another study, fever, rash myalgia, arthritis and night sweats were the best predictors for HIV infection.   The symptom phase of HIV infection lasts between 7-10 days, and rarely longer than 14 days. The nonspecific nature of the symptoms posses a great challenge to the clinician and underlines the importance of a detailed history of exposure. (Altfeld Walker). Another manifestation is Erythema elevatum diutinum (EED) is a chronic and rare dermatosis that is considered to be a variant of leucotoclastic vaculitis. The clinical manifestations are papules, plaques or nodules, which vary in coloration from reddish to purple, light brown and sometimes yellowish. The lesion’s are persistent and symmetrically distributed on extensors surfaces, particularly in the joints of the extremities. Such patients may presents arthralgia. The itchiness and pains, with rare systemic involvement were also observed (Medical Journal 2005). Immune thrombocytopenic purpura may be the sole clinical manifestation of HIV infection. Results of the treatment of 6 patients spontaneous bleeding due to severe thrombocytopenia are presented.   In all patients immune thrombocytopenic purpura was the only clinical manifestation of HIV infection. Four of them were intravenous narcotic addicts, and the other two patients did not belong to high-risk groups (Elizovic, Jevtovic Rolovic 1989). Peripheral Facial paralysis as a manifestation of HIV Infection, Two patients had typical Bell’s palsy while one had a facialdiplegia. CD4 cell counts were above 100 cells/mm3 in all cases. A review of literature confirmed that peripheral facial nerve palsy could occur at any stage of HIV infection and in various clinical contexts. It is suggested that adult patients presenting with peripheral facial paralysis should be counseled, and screened for HIV (Annals AF Med: 2002 1(1) 1:28-30).